Andrew Ross Sorkin in the New York Times provides some important background on how the Bear deal wound up being retraded today. But he does his readers and the greater public a huge disservice by telling the story so as to flatter Wall Street.
According to Sorkin, the $2 price for Bear was the Fed’s and Treasury’s idea; JP Morgan was prepared to pay more, but they nixed the idea, saying they did not like the “optics” of the deal. The implication is that the officials overstepped their bounds. That is a pretty outrageous spin when the government is putting up taxpayer money.
Had it been an option, the Fed should have nationalized Bear. It was going to declare bankruptcy Monday if there was no deal; its shareholders would have been wiped out. Why am I so confident of this view? If bondholders, as rumored, were buying shares to make sure the JPM deal went through (and thus would take losses on their stock purchases when the deal closed), that meant that they thought their bonds were worth well under 100 cents on the dollar in a bankruptcy. Shareholders are subordinate to bondholders, so equity owners would have gotten zilch.
I can think of a host of reasons, however, why the Fed did not go the nationalization route, the biggest being that it lacked clear authority (it couldn’t declare Bear to be insolvent, as it could a member bank). And letting Bear fail (and having acsounts frozen) was what the Fed was trying to avoid, so letting it fail and then seizing control (even assuming it could do that) was never an option. No doubt, the central bank also did not want to assume administrative control of an entity that it had never regulated (ie, its supervisors had never kicked its tires) that dealt actively in markets in which the Fed has little expertise. Even in an orderly liquidation scenario, that it a lot to take on.
Sorkin nevertheless argues that the Fed did Bear a dirty because:
…..the night that Bear signed the original bid, the Fed opened what’s known as the discount window to companies like Goldman Sachs and Lehman Brothers — oh, yes, and to Bear, too. Except that the Fed didn’t tell Bear that it planned to open the window when it was signing its deal with JPMorgan.
This verges on being revisionist history. First and most important, the discount window was opened to keep the panic about Bear from spreading to other firms, most notably Lehman. It almost certainly would not have happened then if Bear was not on the verge of imploding. Remember, a mere week and a day ago, there was pervasive fear that the wheels were about to come off the financial system, particularly if counterparties started getting leery of dealing with Lehman.
Moreover, usage of the new discount window the first week was light due to worries about stigma. If Bear had gone and used it aggressively, it may well have reinforced rather than allayed fears about the trading firm’s health. If other firms continued to refuse to deal with Bear, its collapse was assured. There was a very real possibility that even if Bear had remained independent and used the window, its bankruptcy merely would have been delayed a day or two. And it would have been well nigh impossible to put together a three party takeover deal between the close of business in New York and market opening in Asia on a weekday.
But the most appalling aspect of Sorkin’s account: he acts as if Bear had the right to be informed of the Fed’s plans. Sorkin seems to have forgotten the golden rule: he who has the gold makes the rules. The Fed had every right to be calling the shots. They were taking the biggest risk in this transaction. The notion that a firm about to fail is entitled to be treated as a being on an equal footing with its rescuers is absurd. And the fact that Sorkin (and presumably others on Wall Street) sympathize with this view says the industry badly needs to be leashed and collared.
Finally, a series of posts at Dealbreaker suggest that JPM knew full well that it was guaranteeing Bear’s trades (the supposed mistake in the contract):
As we pointed out this morning, we don’t think it was an oversight. On the conference call on the Sunday night the deal was announced there was a lot of discussion of the guarantee. Some of it was confusing, as much of what happens on public conference calls is often confusing. But it seems pretty clear that JP Morgan fully understood that it’s guarantee would cover Bear liabilities even if the deal was rejected.
After the jump, we present an excerpt from the transcript of the Sunday night conference call. In the excerpt, Steve Black, the co-head of JP Morgan’s investment banking division, is asked by an analyst about the guarantee. He clearly says that it will cover Bear liabilities already entered into and those entered into prior to closing or rejection, but not those entered into after the rejection.
Sorkin also makes clear that Dimon was unhappy paying so little for Bear and was concerned about a revolt among those employees he wanted to keep. That then raises the question of whether the supposed fits thrown by Dimon over the trading guarantees really were a bad case of buyer’s regret. After all, at a price of $2, JPM was paying more than a billion less than than it eventually offered. Was that exposure really so awful that the economic value of getting out of it was worth a billion plus?
It thus seems more plausible that the alleged contract defects gave Dimon the excuse to pay the price he wanted to pay to keep peace in the family. And I will go further: knowing a bit about one of the attorneys involved (Rodgin Cohen of Sullivan & Cromwell, who represented Bear), I consider it quite possible that the lawyers contrived to have glitches in the deal to allow it to be reopened. (On a deal I was involved in, Cohen pulled a huge ruse with the Fed that my client to this day is unaware of, according to Gene Ludwig, who was later my attorney). Their loyalties are to the Street, not the Fed or the public at large.
Even the Times’ news reporting (a story by Lanodn Thomas and Eric Dash) falls for the Wall Street party line:
Mr. Dimon’s about-face illustrates the deep complexity and political sensitivity of a deal with participants who reached into the highest corners of Washington, from the Treasury to the Federal Reserve System. It also underscores the extent to which JPMorgan and government officials underestimated the wave of anger and opposition that would flow from irate Bear employees and shareholders who saw the original $236 million that JPMorgan agreed to pay just a week earlier as far too cheap….
And finally, the low-ball offer cast Mr. Dimon as an unscrupulous negotiator in the eyes of envious rivals, who felt no compunction in raiding Bear for its talent, with many employees only too happy to leave. The new terms, he hopes, will show him to be a more pragmatic deal maker, willing to seek compromise to save a deal that for the time being at least, brought a jolt of confidence to Wall Street.
Bear was going to fail as of Monday. Bye bye equity and many if not most jobs. How hard is this to understand? I thought anyone who was remotely financially literate understood what bankruptcy means. The employees should be grateful to get anything. But no, the media slavishly accepts their sense of entitlement.
So I don’t buy Sorkin’s theory that the Fed overreached. In fact, I’m deeply offended that he is presenting this idea at all. It’s part of the conspiracy to foist the losses of a reckless securities industry onto the public at large.
Update 1:40 AM: A post by Steve Davidoff at the New York Times’ Dealbook argues that the revised deal could be more susceptible to being upended by the Delaware courts. While most Bear shareholders have reportedly thrown in the towel, billionaire Joe Lewis has the funds and motivation to keep fighting.