Inside the Chaotic Charter Schools Run by For-Profit Accel Schools

Yves here. It might seem easy to dismiss the child-warehousing-masquerading-as-education perpetrated by Accel Schools as a charter school outlier. But as this article explains, Accel embodies a new trend to profit-maximization and asset stripping in this arena.

By Jeff Bryant, a writing fellow and chief correspondent for Our Schools. He is a communications consultant, freelance writer, advocacy journalist, and director of the Education Opportunity Network, a strategy and messaging center for progressive education policy. His award-winning commentary and reporting routinely appear in prominent online news outlets, and he speaks frequently at national events about public education policy. Follow him on Twitter @jeffbcdm. Produced by Our Schools

It didn’t take long for Tasha Stiles to realize there was something very wrong with the school where she had just started teaching.

First, there was her rushed orientation to the school, Toledo Preparatory Academy, an early kindergarten through eighth grade charter school in Toledo, Ohio, operated by for-profit charter chain Accel Schools. She told Our Schools that her training during orientation in August 2020 consisted mostly of one workshop on “basics,” which included how to record attendance and enter grades. There was no school handbook or written guidelines about student discipline practices or instructional protocols.

She said that the school had the appearance of a bare-bones operation, with very little decoration on the walls, empty classroom shelves with no books or instructional materials, heavily worn flooring and furniture, a rickety staircase that students and staff had to use daily, and drafty classrooms with insufficient radiator heating, which, on cold days, kept students shivering even in their coats.

Although Stiles had mostly taught social studies in her career, she told Our Schools that at Toledo Prep, she was told to teach math in grades five through eight. To help with lesson planning, she was given binders that contained the Ohio math standards and some student math workbooks, for which there was no teacher’s edition for grade eight.

She was told that students were expected to spend most of their instructional time on their Chromebooks, which the school supplied for in-school use only, and that students needed to be working on i-Ready, a digital software program for reading and mathematics, for at least 30 minutes per class period. The school didn’t seem to have any other curriculum materials available.

Administrative staff made promises of books and supplies that never arrived or, if they came, were never dispersed to classrooms. Stiles eventually resorted to using online learning tools like Khan Academy videos, which were free online, but school administrators disapproved of her using them.

“I had eighth graders who were reading at kindergarten level,” she told Our Schools. She also observed that there were students at Toledo Prep who struggled with English but had no consistent help from specialized support staff. What few support staff there were came from outside agencies that provided services, such as counseling and mental health, mostly online. A lone special education teacher with responsibility for all exceptional students in the building was “stretched very thin,” Stiles said.

The most reliable support staff in the building proved to be the tech support service from a company called Pansophic Learning, which happens to be the parent company of Accel Schools.

There was no school nurse, Stiles recalled, adding that, as COVID-19 raged across Ohio, students generally didn’t wear masks, and the school did no contact tracing when students or staff got sick with the virus. One day, a student came to her with bloodied knuckles, and Stiles went in search of the school’s first-aid kit, which turned out to be empty. The next day, Stiles came to school with Band-Aids that she’d purchased with her own money. Word about this got around, and students would come to her whenever they needed Band-Aids.

The few student clubs and after-school activities the charter school offered were all canceled after a student, following a TikTok trend, damaged a bathroom.

Students were frequently suspended by the school’s administrative staff, often for reasons that weren’t clear to her. “Rules were made up on the fly,” she said. One week she counted and realized that 20 students had been suspended by the school staff.

The school also enforced a rigid student ranking system, placing students in hierarchies based on their academic performance and discipline issues. Students at the top of the hierarchy were called “eagles,” students in the next rank below were labeled “doves,” and students called “larks” included those who were struggling with learning or behavioral issues. Students in the bottom rank, who were currently serving in-school suspensions, were called “turkeys,” until complaints by parents of students prompted the school to change the label to “phoenix.”

What substituted for a rich academic program at the charter school was its near-constant emphasis on test prep. “Everything was focused on testing,” Stiles said. “I had never taught in a school where there was so much emphasis on testing. While I was there, there were three whole days devoted to nothing but mock testing.”

Stiles quit after working only three months at the school, but the experience left her very frustrated and deeply concerned about the students. “I can’t pretend to not see what I saw there,” she said.

What Stiles didn’t know when she took the job at Toledo Prep was that she had stepped into a school that emulates what has become a growing practice in the charter school industry.

As an ongoing investigation by Our Schools has revealed, a substantial sector of charter schools, particularly those operated by for-profit operators like Accel Schools, are at the forefront of a wave of charter operations that follow an investor-driven business model borrowed from retail, health care, and manufacturing sectors.

In the charter school application of this business model, struggling schools are cycled through a series of private entities that, in turn, strip the schools of resources, run them at bare-bones costs, and reap whatever assets that remain before handing the schools off to the next private operator, or shutting them down completely.

In business and investment circles, the model is often defended as “an important economic function” to either “revive” struggling enterprises, or “reallocate” resources that have been invested in failed enterprises to more productive endeavors.

But in the case of Toledo Prep, and other charter schools practicing this business model, although the business consequences might be fine for the charter operators and their investors, the children caught up in this investor-driven enterprise often have their education significantly disrupted, or even permanently impaired, perhaps with lifelong impact.

Portfolios of Failed Charters

Stiles, who earned her master’s degree in education at the University of Kentucky, had been teaching since 1998, mostly at schools outside the United States. When she returned to the United States in 2020, she started looking for work in Ohio.

She was attracted to charter schools because she wanted the challenge of teaching academically challenged students, and Ohio state law generally guides charters to locate in urban or “challenged” districts.

Stiles, who identifies as white, had previously taught mostly in private Islamic schools—she practices the Islamic faith and wears a hijab—where students were often more affluent and better supported than most of their peers. She believed she could have a bigger impact on students who were more disadvantaged.

What Stiles only later came to learn is that Toledo Prep had a previous life, with a different name, a different operator, and a different authorizing agency that held the permit allowing the school to operate—which, in Ohio, is called a sponsor.

According to two leading business registration services, the building at the address now occupied by Toledo Preparatory Academy—824 6th St. in Toledo, Ohio 43605—had previously been occupied by Aurora Academy, a charter school sponsored by, according to state records, the Buckeye Community Hope Foundation (BCHF), an Ohio nonprofit that has long sponsored a number of charter schools in the state.

It’s not clear who operated Aurora Academy before it became Toledo Prep, but according to a 2018 report by the Cleveland Plain Dealer, the school was acquired by Accel Schools around the same time Accel was buying up charter schools that had previously been operated by White Hat Management, a for-profit charter management organization (often called a CMO).

White Hat was one of a number of CMOs, according to a 2013 analysis by Policy Matters Ohio (PMO), that had a history of using a loophole in state charter school laws to open new charter schools in the same locations where a previous charter had been closed due to poor academic results. A case study that was part of the analysis by PMO showed that White Hat opened a “new” charter school, Southside Academy in Youngstown, “within days” of a school at the same street address being closed due to poor academic performance.

Both BCHF and White Hat had earned high ratings in the Ohio Department of Education’s 2015 evaluation of charter school sponsors and management firms, the Cleveland Plain Dealer reported. However, the article also noted that the Cleveland Transformation Alliance, an alliance of local businesses and organizations that advocate for high-quality schools in Cleveland, wasn’t “convinced” with those ratings, finding flaws with BCHF’s “school quality issues” and the “track record” of its associated management companies, which included White Hat.

Whether or not BCHF took this criticism to heart is difficult to assess, but it certainly made a turnabout in its performance evaluation of Aurora Academy.

In its 2016-2017 annual report, the foundation rated Aurora Academy as meeting or exceeding performance levels in all its evaluation categories but one—academic. However, the foundation’s performance report for 2018-2019 lists the school as falling short of the foundation’s acceptable academic and fiscal performance levels, and the report indicated the school was among five of its charter schools that would be closed at the end of the 2018-2019 school year.

As the Akron Beacon Journal reported in 2018, White Hat Management started closing its schools, beginning in 2014, as families of students opted for other schools for their children as a result of “years of low test scores and soaring high school dropout rates.” Charter schools run by White Hat Management, the report further noted, were “among the lowest performers in the state” and “were plagued from the start with allegations of padded enrollment and skirting accountability.”

Although the exact date that Accel bought Aurora Academy is unclear, a state registry of charter schools (which are called “community schools” in Ohio) in 2017 indicates Aurora Academy was being operated by Accel Schools, with BCHF continuing as the school’s sponsor.

But by 2019, state documents indicate that Accel had changed the name of the school where Aurora Academy had been located to Kenmore Preparatory Academy dba (doing business as) Toledo Preparatory Academy. The school’s new sponsor was the St. Aloysius Orphanage.

Toledo Prep is not the only Accel school that’s been similarly rebranded to cover up its troubled past.

“Worse Than I Expected”

Carol Burris, executive director of the Network for Public Education, reported in the Washington Post that Accel and Pansophic Learning also bought the holdings of Cambridge Education Group, another defunct for-profit charter operator. Those acquisitions included Buckeye Preparatory Academy in Columbus, Ohio, which was also sponsored by BCHF.

Like the rebranding of its school in Toledo, Accel changed the name of Buckeye Preparatory Academy to Capital Collegiate Preparatory Academy, and the St. Aloysius Orphanage became the school’s new sponsor.

Also, like Toledo Prep, Capital Collegiate’s academic program appears to be makeshift at best.

“There was no curriculum,” Tisha Brady, a former teacher and board member at Capital Collegiate, told Our Schools. Much like Accel’s Toledo school, teachers at Capital Collegiate generally relied on the i-Ready software platform as their only instructional resource, which was loaded onto the students’ Chromebooks.

“Students got very little to no direct or group instruction,” Brady said. A set of textbooks she found sequestered in the library had to be returned to the library after each use. New resources that were promised by the school’s administrators often never materialized or turned out to be not what was promised, including “smartboards that turned out not to be smartboards,” she said, but were, instead, whiteboards, which are a fraction of the cost and have much less usefulness for teachers.

Teachers at Capital Collegiate got few, if any, instructional guidelines, Brady recalled, and very few of the school’s rules were written down.

Also, just like in Toledo Prep, teachers were encouraged to be harsh disciplinarians, and testing was a virtually nonstop activity in the school. Weekly assessments were called “street races,” said Brady, and more intensive evaluations, called “rallies,” were held every three weeks. Students were given incentives, such as pizza parties, to do well on the tests.

The specialist who worked with the school’s exceptional children was “brand-new,” Brady said, and struggled in the position. “There was no effort to inform parents of their children’s special needs at the beginning of the school year,” she said. “Many of the children with learning disabilities who should have had a [federally required] Individualized Education Program did not get one until April,” leaving these students’ special education needs unaddressed for nearly the whole school year.

Brady, who is also an adjunct professor at Columbus State Community College, taught third grade at Capital Collegiate from August 2019 to April 2020. When she left her teaching position, she was hired by the school’s board as a compliance officer to observe how well Accel’s management practices aligned with state guidelines.

Her assessment of Accel’s management was, “It was worse than I expected. Board meeting announcements, agendas, and minutes were never [publicly] posted. No [meeting] notices or minutes ever went out to the media or [were posted] on social media.”

According to Ohio’s Sunshine Law, public school boards are required to ​​post notices of when board meetings will occur, provide agendas to the public, and keep and distribute meeting minutes. Although Ohio charter schools are exempt from scores of state regulations related to public schools, the state’s Sunshine Law is not among the exemptions, according to an analysis by the Ohio Legislative Service Commission and the Ohio General Assembly.

Also, Brady said that whenever she made inquiries with Accel personnel regarding her concerns about how students were being educated, “Accel personnel frequently said, ‘We’ll get back to you,’ but they never did.”

Another Capital Collegiate former board member who spoke to Our Schools was Rhonda Whitfield. Whitfield, who works as a fraud prevention representative at Discover Financial Services, was on the board from January 2019 to November 2021 and also served as the school’s treasurer.

Whitfield told Our Schools that board meetings with the school’s administrative staff and, occasionally, the Accel regional manager were “generally uninformative,” and that Accel officials repeatedly failed to hand over documents related to the financials or the academic goals of the school.

Although board members asked for documentation of learning plans and achievement trends, the only achievement data they ever received were from the student scores on assessments taken through i-Ready. Accel staff tended to respond to board members’ inquiries with “verbal” assurances that were “hard to pin down,” according to Whitfield.

Whitfield said she also expressed her concerns to Accel officials about the lack of curriculum resources and instructional materials in the school, and that, as treasurer, she frequently processed bills for curriculum supplies and textbooks but rarely saw those supplies being used in classrooms.

While the school’s website has pictures of colorful classrooms with shelves stocked with books and learning materials, Whitfield shared with Our Schools photographs taken in the school that show bare-bones classroomswith empty shelves, while newly purchased materials, some still in their shipping containers, can be seen stacked in storage.

“It was chaos,” was how she summed up her recollections of how the school was run. When she left the board, the school was $48,000 in debt, she told Our Schools.

Profit by Chaos

Every school in the Accel network claims on its website that the school is “accredited by Cognia for meeting the highest standards of education in ongoing third-party review.”

Cognia, formerly AdvancED, is one of the largest regional K-12 accrediting associations in the U.S. and also provides student assessment and teacher professional development services. Although the nonprofit has been around for more than 120 years, “[m]uch of how Cognia works and the people behind the nonprofit are a mystery to the general public,” and it is “without government oversight,” according to the Atlanta Journal-Constitution, which looked into two school districts in Georgia that were being subjected to a review by Cognia.

Also, there’s really no definitive proof that Cognia accreditation is a guarantee of high quality. Back in 2011 when Cognia’s accreditation services were branded as AdvancED, the nonprofit gave accreditation to a chain of 17 Life Skills charter high schools operated by White Hat Management—schools that graduated only 5.2 percentof their students. These schools were eventually closed or were sold to other charter management companies, the Associated Press reported in 2018.

In writing this report, Our Schools left an inquiry on Pansophic Learning’s website asking for the company to comment on criticisms made by its former employees and board members. As of this writing, there’s been no reply. But in the company’s defense (and to the nation’s shame), there are likely many public schools that are as chaotic and bereft of resources as these Accel schools are.

Public school teachers have been known to vent their frustrations over the conditions in their schools by posting snapshots on social media of tattered old textbooks and broken furniture in their schools. And stories of schools functioning under chaotic conditions abound, especially during the pandemic.

However, in the case of public schools, no one is profiting off a poorly resourced, chaotic school, while Accel Schools and Pansophic Learning are no doubt planning on a big financial haul.

Accel’s growth has been fast-paced,” Carol Burris reported in her Washington Post article. “It now manages 73 charter schools (brick and mortar or online) in Arizona, California, Colorado, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Washington, and it is attempting to open schools in West Virginia.”

Furthermore, while problems with under-resourced and badly managed public schools can be blamed on school or government officials, who’ve been either irresponsible or inept, the pattern at schools managed by Pansophic Learning and Accel are following what appears to be a clearly intentional and well-thought-out business plan.

That, at least, is the conclusion Tisha Brady has reached. “For the types of schools Accel purchased,” she observed—struggling schools like Aurora Academy and Buckeye Preparatory Academy—“they knew the kind of problems they were going to face. For them not to have detailed academic or behavioral plans is unconscionable.”

She suspects that Accel’s management of its schools is entirely intentional. She expects that the schools, should they continue to show poor performance, may “get into trouble, and the state smacks down.” But even so, “new board members will be brought in, most of the teachers will be gone, [and] maybe the schools [will] get a new sponsor and new names. And the process starts all over again.”

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  1. ambrit

    Here in one snapshot is the decline of the Social Contract. A formerly important public ‘good’ is sold off for private profit. The nation and it’s citizens suffer as a result. This has been going on for a while now. Is it any wonder that America is looking like a garden variety Banana Republic, from top to bottom?

    1. anon y'mouse

      what’s surprising is that, barring the tech advance, it’s not significantly different from my time as a student in public schools in CA 30 years ago—-overfocus on attendance & testing, no supplies other than occasionally grifter “textbooks” being handed out in insufficient numbers, zero building maintenance, throwing teachers in at the deep end in subjects that they had no familiarity with, students significantly behind and no one trying to get them help, etcetc.

      and then people wonder (and rail at the individuals comprising) the American public being so poorly educated!

      1. Jeff Bryant

        Did you read the whole article? “… in the case of public schools, no one is profiting off a poorly resourced, chaotic school, while Accel Schools and Pansophic Learning are no doubt planning on a big financial haul … while problems with under-resourced and badly managed public schools can be blamed on school or government officials, who’ve been either irresponsible or inept, the pattern at schools managed by Pansophic Learning and Accel are following what appears to be a clearly intentional and well-thought-out business plan.”

        1. anon y'mouse

          what i’m saying is, that “business” plan was already being adhered to without the profit motive long before charters became a big thing here. granted, in the district i attended, the “profits” were being siphoned off through contracting frauds with the school district. we had quite a few scandals in the 80s/90s exposing those with family or other social connections being hooked up to the pub. ed. money pipeline.

          and then when the naturally underperforming public schools are failing so obviously, selling the charter thing became the “solution”. the grift is on the way up as well as on the way down, public AND private/charter.

          this is why any parents with the dough were already sending their kids to 5 figure truly private and usually religious based schools in that urban area back then.

          1. Jeff Bryant

            I’ve done a lot reporting about grift in the public education system:
            That sort of fraud and malfeasance is simply not the same thing as allowing private companies to willfully exploit taxpayer funds through operating slipshod schools. First, publicly operated schools are still subject to democratic governance by an elected school board. Now I know school boards can be corrupted too and far too few voters pay attention to these boards and participate in elections. But there is at least a mechanism to elect a competent board that exercises oversight. Also, public institutions are subject to FOIA and other levers for rooting out corruption and mismanagement. In the case of Accel and other charter operators there is no such transparency and accountability.

      2. John Schubert

        The U.S. basically has two public education systems.
        Wealthy suburban districts have pretty good education (although affluenza and complacency are a problem).
        Poor districts, whether urban or rural, don’t do so well.
        The charter promoters have discovered they can siphon off billions from the well-funded districts. And the results stink.

        1. J

          A common tactic these schools use is siphoning off the highest performing students with stable households and leave the rest in the public schools. They can then point to their lower costs (less special ed and counseling staff needed!) and higher test scores (they can pick and choose their student body) and contrast that to the local public school left with all the struggling students that need more help and thus have higher costs. They’re a social blight.

  2. Colonel Smithers

    Thank you, Yves.

    I read this post and thought I have seen this name somewhere and remembered that I saw an advert for them on the tube (London underground railway for readers outside Blighty).

    Accel has an outpost with British partners in north London. What intrigued me was the reference to “customers”, not pupils, and, having read this post, I can understand why and why I was suspicious when I saw the advert.

  3. PNW

    Ron Packard, CEO.

    Packard also worked for McKinsey & Company and for Goldman Sachs in mergers and acquisitions. Packard has received the Education Industry Association’s James P. Boyle Entrepreneurial Leadership Award, as well as the Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award in the IT Services & Solutions category in Greater Washington. The University of Chicago’s Booth School of Business named him a Distinguished Alumni

    McKinsey, Goldman, E&Y, University of Chicago. Quite the box checker.

  4. cobo

    The university where I worked for 6 years and 11 months, doing business development and outreach, is the largest single teacher credentialling institution in California. About 10% of California teachers and administrators have gotten their credentials there, about 70% in San Diego County. Since I am a credentialed teacher, it was very interesting for me to work with county offices, school districts and charter schools throughout my region (Monterrey to Mendocino). We even worked with CAVA (California Virtual Academy), owned by one of the large charter operators, and our WASC (Western Association of Schools and Colleges) contacts to get accreditation for online student teaching. Let’s cut to the chase. In my opinion, public schools are under attack with an eye on seizing public school properties. I’ve mentioned that here before, in relationship to the pandemic and the abrupt shift to online learning. I 100% support public schools, and I can speak in detail as to how they can integrate technology into the classrooms far beyond where it is now – and I can point to specific schools where those possibilities are nascent, however, what is going on in education is more about the methodical deconstruction of the American society and economy by a criminal overclass. My answer – nationalize everything, claw back everything, let the rich man exercise his right to sleep under the bridge just like the poor man. Then, get this .. county’s head out of the .. dark and build it for Americans by Americans – and reach out to our neighbors North and South to join us.

  5. arn

    most charter schools and almost all public schools are reasons to homeschool and to eventually demand back a bunch of taxes

  6. Alex Cox

    Regarding whiteboards vs. ‘smartboards’ a math professor I know refuses to use the latter. Smartboards mean the student doesn’t need to write anything – the info is automatically transmitted to their laptop. My friend says, if they don’t write, they don’t learn.

  7. Shirley Ende-Saxe

    One of the advantages to charter schools (at least in OH) is that the private “operators” take the heat off our fearless legislators: they get all the photo ops, contributions to their campaigns,credit for business making everything better and zero responsibility for the none too stellar results. In our republican dominated state….whats not to like? Apparently not too many citizens remember these turkeys are responsible for opening up the education “market”.

  8. Jon Claerbout

    There is some truth to the article, but I’m sure someone equally biased in the other direction could go to the public school across town from that school and write an even worse article. The main character is a teacher who left after three months.
    “Our Schools,” who funded the article describes itself like this-

    Our Schools goes to the front lines of the nationwide effort to privatize and undermine the public education system. It exposes the false promises of charter schools, voucher programs, and corporate-style reforms and spotlights how communities are fighting back and often succeeding against the school privatization agenda.

    Their goal is to get rid of standardized testing, etc.
    The group that runs that group, Independent Media Institute claims its main focus is “social justice”
    In early 2018, IMI transferred AlterNet to new ownership, allowing IMI to re-focus its work on creating and distributing original, thoughtful explorations of social justice and public interest issues.

    California is about to get the social justice they wanted in education since they have removed SATs for UC entrance, exactly what that writer wants. It will be interesting to watch.

    1. Yves Smith Post author

      This comment engaged in multiple violations of our written Policies. One more like this and you will be blacklisted.

      This is entirely an ad hominem attack, with absolutely no substantive rebuttal. You claim that there are public schools as lousy with NO evidence, depict the author as biased, and then attack the publication.

      And you straw man, which I am not going to waste my time itemizing.

      You are unable to offer an evidence-based defense of charter schools generally, and this one in particular, so you smear the messenger. If anything, your utter failure to argue on the merits lends strong support to the notion that these charges are 100% accurate.

    2. skippy

      Sorry YS but I’ll stick my nose in here.

      @Jon … the entire impetus of charter [private – user pays] schools et al is treating education as a market choice for individuals and not the soundness of its curriculum or its benefit to the student. Its completely investor driven by way of an income stream in perpetuity, kids will always be born and need schooling and setting up neoliberal bottleneck economic extraction points is a feature and not a bug. This is acerbated by the long term agenda delivered with ratchet like effect to defund public education, as well, impair the education of teachers via the same market forces denoted above e.g. lower standards to grind out more product and then expect the market to clear the dead wood so the wheat is separated from the chafe and then be confused at the results over a period of time.

      I would also point out Gates CORE was never about education in the classical sense. It was a means to establish a ridged market place framework which would offer untold wealth for the founders by means of an IP on all the class room texts and the need for digital devices to facilitate investor dreams in the short and long term.

      This was all preceded by the pre CORE agenda to make public schools operate on market based metrics and in a survival of the fittest methodology seek income streams from the private sector and *partners* over tax funded option because tax is theft on an earner aka job creators [tm]. This culminated in bringing in corporate processed food and impulse by vending machines into the public schools to subsidize there lack of state driven taxation – utopia was around the corner.

      So my question is how is that paradigm working.

  9. Scott1

    Anarchists of the Godwin sort believe that government has two duties to its citizens: Defense and Education. The economist Maynard Keynes was one of the first economists to have at hand true statistics telling him what people did with their money. When citizens get their hands on wages or inherit money that allows them to spend beyond mere survival they spend it on education and home improvements. Citizens will accept higher taxes when they see that their children are given better educations in their county as compared to the education of children in the neighboring counties.
    Counties with good school systems suffer less crime.
    The most effective way to learn is to learn from your peers, your friends.
    Ever since Bill Clinton’s administration when Meyer Lansky’s financial engineering practices used by mobsters was made legal for corporations and companies every aspect of our lives in America has been turned so as to profit psychopaths.

  10. J

    This wasn’t really covered in this article, but when the state finally closes these school they dump hundreds of struggling students onto the public school system, often mid school year. Public schools have to pick up the pieces. Classroom sizes swell with students often years behind where they should be. Even though special ed positions are often adequately staffed in public schools (understaffing these positions if often how these charters are able to boast lower costs), they are stretched thin by the influx of underserved students. I’ve seen this happen multiple times in my district and it’s very distressing.

  11. Robert Dannin

    plus ça change … ohio is the epicenter of charter school abuse. i did a three-year funded ethnographic study of ohio charters 2002-2005. my report exposed similar outrageous school conditions, corruption across the board by charter operators large and small, and a pattern of negligence by the state regulators. the russell sage foundation refused to publish my findings. something terribly wrong then and it continues today.

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